**There are Eight questions in this assignment (each carrying 10 marks). Answer all the questions. 20 Marks are for viva-voce. You may use illustrations and diagrams to enhance explanations. Please go through the guidelines regarding assignments given in the Programme Guide for the format of presentation.**

- What are the advantages and disadvantages of using DDA algorithm for line generation? List the steps of the algorithm. Use this algorithm to draw a line with endpoints (2, 3) and (9, 8). Compare DDA algorithm and Bresenham Line generation Algorithm? Show step by step execution of Bresenham Line Generation algorithm for drawing a line having endpoints (2, 3) and (9, 8).
- What is the major difference between Cohen Sutherland and Cyrus beck line clipping algorithms? Briefly Discuss both algorithms with suitable example. In Cyrus Beck line clipping algorithm, How will you determine whether the point of intersection between line and clipping window is Potentially Entering (PE) or Potentially Leaving (PL). Derive the expression for t with respect to ith edge and PQ (line to be clipped) in the context of Cyber Beck line clipping algorithm. Use the Cohen Sutherland line clipping algorithm to clip the line segment PQ having coordinates P(20, 30) and Q (100, 100). The clipping window ABCD‟s coordinates are – A(0,0), B(40,0), C(40,40) and D(0,40)
- How Euclidean Coordinate System Differs from Homogeneous Coordinate system? What is the advantage of Homogeneous Coordinate system over Euclidean Coordinate System? Assume a polygon ABCDE having coordinates A(0,0), B(10,10), C(10,2), D(5,5), E(7,6) is subjected to the counter-clockwise rotation of 45° about an axis passing through the centroid of the polygon . Find the transformed coordinates of the polygon ABCDE. You should represent the transformation using Homogeneous Coordinate System
- Draw the tree structure to discuss the Taxonomy of Projection, in computer graphics. Compare and contrast Parallel & Perspective projection, in detail. i.e with suitable examples, equations, expressions etc. What is isometric projection? Derive a general transformation matrix for isometric projection. Obtain an isometric view of a cube of the unit size lying on the origin. What is vanishing point in context of projections, in computer graphics? Consider a cube of size 4 units that is lying on the origin, obtain the perspective projection of this cube on z=0 plane having the centre of projection at E(0,0,-2) . Can we find the vanishing point(s) for this projection?
- What is the utility of Bezier Curves in Computer Graphics? Write the properties of the Bezier curves and prove all properties. What do you understand by the Parametric Continuities and Geometric Continuities in context of Bezier Curves? Discuss both type of continuities with suitable expressions, equations and examples. Explain the role of control points in Bezier Curves. Draw a Bezier curve having the control points as P0(0, 0), P1(2, 5), P2(5, 9), P3(10, 20). Calculate the coordinates of the points on the curve corresponding to the parameter u = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6. Draw a rough sketch of the curve and show coordinates of various points on it?
- Explain the following with suitable examples:
- Windowing Transformations
- Scan Line Polygon Fill Algorithm
- Z-Buffer Algorithm
- Sweep representations
- Simulating Accelerations in Computer Animations

- Explain the following in the context of computer Graphics and multimedia, use suitable diagram and /or mathematical equations or example in your explanation.
- Shading and its types
- Reflection and its types
- Animation and its types
- Audio File Formats and its type
- Video File Formats and its types

- Differentiate between the following:
- Key frame animation and Cel animation
- Analog and Digital Sound
- Hypermedia and hypertext
- Painting tools and drawing tools
- Random Scan Display Devices and Raster Scan Display Devices
- Computer Graphics and Animation
- Interlaced and progressive scan
- Compression and decompression in digital video
- Hypermedia and hypertext (x) Ray tracing and Ray casting.